วันศุกร์ที่ 10 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2555

CHAPTER 11: Information System

Role of Information Systems in an Organization

       An information system can be a mainframe, mid-range or network computer concept that allows distributed processing for a group of users accessing the same software application. These systems provide management with control over their data, with various tools to extract data or view data structures and records. The role of an information system is to foster a data management environment that is robust and can be expanded according to an organizations' strategic plan for information processing. An information system also satisfies diverse information needs in an organization.

Automation of Manual Tasks Information systems architecture can assist an organization in automating manual tasks. Automation can save time, money and resources and enhance organizational workflow. There are various types of information systems that automate manual tasking, ranging from robotic information systems used in areas such as health and medical services to logistical information systems (automated warehouses and distribution systems).

Hardware and Software Integration 
An organization can have several different computer platforms (hardware and software). The concept of information systems as a scalable platform can merge different hardware and software systems. A system can process, store and distribute information if integrated into the workflow of an information system. For example, a local area network (LAN) can integrate into a mainframe system that processes accounting information through a concept called a "gateway." An open architecture information system allows for integration at all levels throughout an organization.

Support of a Multi-Processing Environment 
An information system can support a "real-time" multi-processing environment through the concept of "time-sharing application." Time-sharing application allows for the prioritizing of applications based on user-id and system priority assigned to an application, device, and database or system catalog. These features are important to an organization that process transactions while developing and testing program applications. In a multi-processing environment, various departments, divisions or branches can have access to the system at the same time intervals.

System Partitioning 
The layout of an information system is partitioned according to data security policies, user access and program applications. The partitioning of the physical hard drives, memory and storage space related to software applications creates system balance and effective use of the system Central Processing Unit (CPU). System partitioning programs, tools and routines keeps the system from overloading, which slows down system performance. Extra files paged to memory that are not being used can slow down a customer support system, which relies on timely processing of customer inquiries. System partitioning is maintained by a process of "preventive maintenance" which ensures the integrity of system partitioning.

Provides Data for Decision Support 
The most important role of an information system in an organization is to provide data to help executive management make decisions. Data is compiled through transaction processing or query routines built into the information system to access item and detail records. Through decision support programs, which are packaged as software routines, executive management can analyze several areas of an organization and create scenarios through the information system for a desired result. These results are defined in the organizations' objectives and goals to improve productivity.

Example of Information System in organization
Payroll system of organization

Enterprise information system organization


วันจันทร์ที่ 30 มกราคม พ.ศ. 2555

Chapter 10 : Information Technology

Pros and Cons of Information Technology

Information Technology has contributed to the world with a high extent. Without its contribution there is a doubt that we could achieve this ‘technological world’ today or not. But even though, some people are raising some statements that Information Technology (IT) Solutions are taking away the Privacy of Normal people and breaking overall reputation of World Wide Human knowledge.
So let us check in the article some good sides (pros) and bad effects(cons) of Information Technology in some points. According to Google’s definition service, it says-

“the branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information”. – Google Definition.

So by the definition as it provides, we understand here that ‘the engineering branch which helps us to communicate, pass our individual knowledge, store & share them by computer and other modern technologies is called Information technology.’

Information Technology Pros

1. The world got flexibility
What we think, do or plan must be shared with our co-workers, colleagues and friends. The internet technology has advanced this system to a great extent. The telephone idea (by Alexander Graham Bell) has been modified and made as Cell Phones to increase more flexibility in communication and talk to our dear fellows whenever we require!

2. The sense of responsibility has increased
Let us take ‘Barack Obama- USA President’ as the figure. With the use of networking sites (Twitter and Facebook), blogs, social bookmarking, the leader can approach to the world whenever necessary and we can receive the news and updates which he has done (or wants to be done by us) within a very short period.

3. Easy thinking & evolution in transportation
To think and to research, we need resources to find what our past people has thought, what quotes they have left for us (+information + theory). We can find them by a single click in Search engines (specially Google, Yahoo!). By getting a clear cut idea, we get the chance of contributing the world with new technological ideas and inventions and share what we have learnt throughout our lives.
And throughout the ages, it helped us to evolute the transportation strategy which helps us to visit from a place to another by (Roads, highways, air, water and in the skies!)

4. Saves thousand of lives daily
So, by the point heading I hope you understand I am referring towards Medical Sector development. Each day people are getting relief by the perfect use of Medicine, Hospital Technology with addition of (X-Rays, Laser Treatments) and more on the queue. By the combination of the World Health Organization, various fatal diseases can be overcome and just expelled from specified countries by quick plans and ideas.

5. Increase the sense of Human Rights
The technology can remind of our human rights, basic needs and give updates where relief or worldwide help is necessary. During earthquakes, terrible floods, while co-operation is necessary the World Wide Web can help us to collect the donation by a desired amount.
It is not possible to just figure out everything about the good and bad sides of Information and Technology within a page and article as because it has mixed with every aspects and corners of our lives. Rather, let us look at the side effects, bad sides (cons) which IT-sectors have brought to the Human Society.

Information Technology Cons

It has taken away people’s Privacy
As IT-Sectors have wined the people’s heart worldwide. People are here to share and store any kind of information, private date in their hard drives and private online databases. But due to some Cyber-Criminals, nothing is SO Safe both online and offline. If someone becomes a bit careless, s/he may needs to pay high for it.

The online community is not safe for Family anymore
Children under age may often share Cell Numbers, Private Email Address which can be hacked by people and can pass it to the criminals who have a blue-print to harm the society. And people are loosing credit card privacy and other payment processing options. Again, there are some sites created by Nasty Guys, which can lead under eighteen teenagers to a different path – That Is Going To Bring Harms To The Nation.

It is going to damage a Human’s Natural Power
We can think, gather human principles (ethical knowledge) and make co-operative relationships between friends and families. But due to harmful aspects of (IT) people are becoming fully technological based. And it can bring huge damage to the society as its taking away the natural thoughts and organic ideas.

It can bring World Destruction without Efficient Administration
This is an extra point which I am writing by remembering various Science Fictions. Great scholars have though about the matter wisely. Til now, we (humans) are possessing the leading place in the world and administering the computer technology. But a day MAY come when the technology is going to administer us in all aspects. It may probably happen that we are converted to the slaves of Technology.
So, by this cons I am not trying to tell that Technology is here to bring harms only, because I myself is a technological man who passes 24 hours browsing computer and talking on phones. But as a part of human society we need to give up a look at the both sides of IT.


Chapter 9: Evaluating Sources of Information

What is Good Website???

Good Website should contained these following charactoristics

Quality content on the website can provide users with the information they are looking for. Content also allows users to establish themself as an expert in their field.
Keyword-filled content is also crucial for getting high search engine rankings. Most internet users trust search engines to help them find what they are looking for. Taking the time to create high quality content can have huge payoffs through increased search engine rankings.

Simple and Attractive Design
The design of a good website should be simple, yet professional. The design should not take away or distract from the content. Websites with excessive use of Flash and moving images can be very distracting. Colors should not be hard on the eyes, and text should be easy to read.

Easy Navigation
Navigation and links provide opportunities to incorporate design elements in to the website; however, navigation schemes should not be so elaborate that the user has trouble knowing where to click to move to another page. Links to your most important pages should be easily found on every page. A good rule of thumb is that every page should be accessible in two clicks from your home page

The most successful websites will stand out from the crowd. There are a number of was that can make the website stand out: better design, high quality articles, a blog, a newsletter, some type of resource or tool. Find something that would be appealing to your target market.

Having a website that changes or is updated frequently will encourage repeat visitors. Repeat visitors will be more loyal and more likely to buy. There are a few different options for keeping the site fresh:
1- Update the site and add content occasionally – This will require you to either pay a designer or do the work yourself.
2 – Use a blog – With a blog you can add content to your website from any computer with an internet connection. All you’ll have to do is login and type. No special software or skills are required.
3 – RSS feeds – With RSS feeds you can add news headlines, weather, stock tickers, etc. to your website. Additionally, you can add content from most blogs to your site with RSS. The benefit of RSS feeds is that once in place they will automatically update.

A successful website will be search engine-friendly. Optimization includes things like using page titles and meta tags for all of your pages. Using headers and alt tags for images can also help optimization and accessibility. Even a website that is strong in other areas but weak in optimization may be hard for users to find.

What is Bias Information???

Information bias: a systematic distortion or error that arises from the procedures used for classification or measurement of the disease, the exposure, or other relevant variables. It can be inaccurate, inappropriate and based on business's objective, or personal opinion.

Bias includes racism, sexism, classism, elitism, favoritism and of course ethnic discrimination. It includes discrimination based a criminal record or being underrepresented in the justice system. Intelligence, beauty and physical ability are also some other factors regarding bias. Religious bias exists as well. Bias can also be part of a “point of view” that includes personal preference, politics, and simple likes and dislikes. There is a whole spectrum related to bias.What is important to recognize; the vast majority and positively most information is biased.

This Week In Tabloids: Why Barack Loves Michelle; Angelina Is Anxious Or Adopting

Welcome back to Midweek Madness, where we parse tabloid punditry so you don't have to. This week marked a slight departure in tabloid fare, as Us featured potential President and First Lady Barack and Michelle Obama on the cover. Don't let it throw you; the other tabloids covered all the usual players, with In Touch, Ok! and Star devoted to Brangelina's baby farm and Life & Style hot on the Britney beat. Come with us as we tell tall tales of tabloid trauma, after the jump.